Linux networking configuration

When we configure the networking, we need to know about these parameters.
IP, Netmask, Gateway, HostName, DomainName, DNS

1. Network files
)a. /etc/sysconfig/network
/etc/sysconfig/network is to define the hostname

/etc/sysconfig/network configurations as following:
NETWORKING <-if connecting to network
GATEWAY <-default gateway
IPGATEWAYDEV <-default gateway device name
HOSTNAME <-computer name
DOMAIN <-local domain name

)b. /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts, this file controls the network card configuratons, ifcfg-eth0 is the first device, if you have multiple network cards then the extra will be ifcfg-eth1, ifcfg-eth2 … configurations as following:

DEVICE <-device name
BOOTPROTO <-IP configuration (static: static IP, dhcp: dynamic IP, none: manual)
HWADDR   <- MAC address
ONBOOT    <- enable the device when booting the machine (yes/no)
TYPE          <- network method (normally it should be Ethemet)
NETMASK    <- network netmask number
IPADDR      <- IP number
IPV6INIT    <- If enabling IPV6 (yes/no)
GATEWAY  <- default gateway IP number

Here’s an example configuration
CODE:
[root@linux ~]# cat -n /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
    1 DEVICE=eth0
   2 BOOTPROTO=static
   3 BROADCAST=192.168.1.255
   4 HWADDR=00:0C:2x:6x:0x:xx
   5 IPADDR=192.168.1.23
   6 NETMASK=255.255.255.0
   7 NETWORK=192.168.1.0
   8 ONBOOT=yes
   9 TYPE=Ethernet

To add more StaticIP on eth0 this card
1. copy the default eth0
2. the default file with configuration is eth0
3. So the second one will be eth0:0
4. the third one is eth0:1

)c. /etc/resolv.conf
this file is to configure the DNS server information
/etc/resolv.conf includes the following settings:
domain ←local domain name
search ←domain name search list
nameserver ←DNS server and it’s IP address (max 3)

)d. /etc/hosts
/etc/hosts is for localhost use purpose (such as 192.168.1.22, 192.168.1.23)
 
2. Basic network commands
)a. network service will need to restart in order to apply any change, the command is as following:

[root@linux ~]#/etc/init.d/network restart
you can also use the system service command:
[root@linux ~]#service network restart
start ←start network
stop ←stop network
restart ←restart network
reload ←same as restart
status ←current status

We can also use ifconfigure to start/stop a network device:
[root@linux ~]#ifconfigeth0 down
to put up:
[root@linux ~]#ifconfigeth0 up

You can also use ifconfig to set the machine ip addr, for example we need to set the eth0 ip addr to 192.168.1.11 and netmask 255.255.255.0 we can do this:

[root@linux ~]#ifconfigetho inet 192.168.1.11 netmask 255.255.255.0
however the setting will be lost after machine reboot.

 

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